이 연구의 목적은 대부분 한글 성경들이 번역하고 있는 “맥추절”(출 23:16; 34:22)이라는 용어의 올바른 번역을 제안하는데 있다. 연구 방법은 용어 번역에 대한 언어학적 접근과 구약 절기에 드린 농산물의 유형들에 대한 사회문화적 접근과 구약 3대 절기에 대한 해석학적 접근을 동시에 사용하여 분석하였다. 먼저 언어학적인 면에서 볼 때 “하그 하카치르”(출 23:16)가 “맥추절”로 번역될 소지가 전혀 없고, 대부분의 영어 번역본들처럼 “수확절” 혹은 “추수절”로 번역되어야 함을 제안하였다. “비쿠레 크치르 히팀”(출 34:22)도 “맥추의 초실절”(개역개절; 개역한글)이라는 번역보다 “밀을 처음 거두어들일 때”로 번역할 것을 제안하였다. 구약의 절기마다 드린 농산물을 고려할 때도 칠칠절(오순절, 맥추절)에 드린 첫 소산물은 밀이기 때문에 맥추절이란 용어는 적합하지 않음을 밝혔다. 마지막으로 구약절기의 해석학적 의미를 고려할 때, 맥추절은 한국의 맥추감사절과 연결이 되는 것이 아니라 오순절의 성령강림절과 연결되어야 함을 밝혔다. 맥추절이란 용어가 수확절 혹은 추수절로 올바로 번역이 되면 이를 맥추감사절로 오해하는 잘못된 관습을 현저히 줄이게 될 것이다.
The Problem of Translating hāg hāqāṣir
as "Maeg Chu Jeol”
The goal of this study is to suggest an alternate term for the Korean biblical term "Maeg Chu Jeol” (Exo 23:16a) (which means “the feast of barley harvest”) which is also referred to as “Chil Chil Jeol” (the feast of weeks) and “Oh Sun Jeol” (Pentecost). Many Korean churches have confused "Maeg Chu Jeol” with the Korean traditional thanksgiving feast of barley harvest which most Korean churches observe in July each year.
The study explores three different approaches to analyzing the translation of "Maeg Chu Jeol”: 1) a linguistic approach in the translation of the word חַג הַקָּצִיר ;
2) a socio-cultural approach to the feasts of the Old Testament for which the people of God offered seasonal agricultural products; and 3) a hermeneutical approach to the three major feasts.
The translation of “Maeg Chu Jeol” in Exo 23:16a is not a right rendering considering the meaning of חַג הַקָּצִיר which simply means “the feast of harvest.” Hence, חַג הַקָּצִיר can be better translated to “the feast/festival of harvest” as represented in a majority of English Bible translations. בִּכּוּרֵי קְצִיר חִטִּים (Exo 34:22a) has been mistakenly translated to “the feast of the first fruits of barley harvest”(NKRV; KRV). The word קְצִיר חִטִּים does not mean “barley harvest” but “wheat harvest.” So it would be more accurately translated to “the first fruits of wheat harvest” as translated by a majority of English Bible translations.
Considering the agricultural products that the people of God offered for the feasts, the type of grain that the Israelites offered for the feast of weeks was not barley but wheat. Thus, the term “Maeg Chu Jeol” itself (which means “the feast of barley harvest”) does not accurately represent the biblical feast.
When it comes to the hermeneutical meaning of the feasts in the Old Testament, the feast of weeks was not linked to a “thanksgiving feast of barley harvest,” but to the celebration day of the coming of the Holy Spirit on the day of Pentecost. Therefore this term brings about a more serious hermeneutical problem because of Korean churches’ confusion of “Maeg Chu Jeol” with “the thanksgiving feast of barley harvest.” If they observe the thanksgiving feast of barley harvest in this sense, they should also keep the Passover Festival and the Feast of Booths in a literal sense. Hence, “Maeg Chu Jeol” should be replaced by a new term.
Once the feast of barley harvest is replaced by a new term “the feast of harvest,” it may significantly decrease the Korean churches’ confusion of “the thanksgiving feast of barley harvest” with the feast of weeks.